Early one August morning in 1964, seven people crossed the border by train passing from South Africa into Mozambique. It was an unusual group of peoplefive black men, one white man and one white woman. Any "mixing of the races" was, of course, immediately suspicious in apartheid South Africa. The six menLouis Moholo-Moholo
, Chris McGregor
, Dudu Pukwana
, Johnny Dyani
and Nikele Moyakemade up The Blue Notes. South Africa's only multi-racial jazz group was ostensibly travelling via Mozambique to Paris and then to the South of France to play at the jazz festival in Juan Les Pins. The woman was Maxine McGregor, partner of the group's pianist and the group's manager, publicist and often main source of financial support. It was true that they were heading for France but there was no question that they were coming back.
On the train in Mozambique, though the country was still subject to the often brutal colonial rule of the Portuguese, there was an air of freedom amongst the party, in particular the black men. For the first time, they could stand next to a white man in the bar on the train without fear of arrest. Playing gigs and touring in their native land had become harder and harder. Concerts were segregated. They might play for whites in the evening and for a black audience in the afternoon. Even though they might not have been doing anything illegal, by their very association they were always at risk.
When the Blue Notes formed in 1962, there was a great deal of interest in jazz in South Africa. Venues might have been few but the country did have a couple of festivals, sponsored by one South Africa's breweries. That fact is astonishing enough, in the context of a country that had become increasingly repressive following the Sharpeville uprising and massacre in March 1960. Nelson Mandela had been arrested in August 1962, tried and sentenced to five years imprisonment after the CIA had tipped off the South African authorities as to his whereabouts. Of even greater significance was the Rivonia Trial of 1963/4. In June 1964, eleven leaders of the banned ANC, including Mr. Mandela, were convicted of sabotage and treason, each one receiving a life sentence.
Maxine McGregor, Chris McGregor's widow, still lives in Lot-et-Garonne in France in the converted mill the family moved to in 1974. She was back in South Africa visiting family when we spoke and I asked her how a multi-racial jazz group could survive in the context of apartheid.
"The police couldn't be everywhere and the group was mostly popular amongst black people and the police didn't really know about it because they were living in a different world, as it were. Also, in the early sixties, when we were doing it, apartheid hadn't really hardened. It wasn't as strict as it was in the late sixties. It was difficult for them to survive. They moved fast and never went to the same place twice. So, the police didn't really cotton on."
Louis Moholo-Moholo is now back living in South Africa, though he still works almost entirely in Europe. He remembers vividly how McGregor would come into his township disguised as a black man, giving a whole new and radical meaning to concept of the 'black-face minstrel.'
"It was very, very tough. By chance we got by. They were heavy but they were not looking for this kind of thing. So, we would do these things under their nose. So, Chris would come to my location, from which he was banned, and he would put some black polish on his face and wear his cap to hide his hair."
McGregor's father was a pastor in one of the townships and he grew up with a love of church music, jazz and the traditional musics of South Africa. As a student, he even succeeded in persuading his liberal tutors that he might undertake a project involving the formation of a multi-racial big band. In McGregor, anti-racism was instinctive, learned through his parents' example and acquired through his own experience of African culture. The Blue Notes had come together in 1962, though as Maxine pointed out, not in their 'final' form. As with all seminal groups, it was a process of coming together and shedding personnel to produce the finished article.
"The thing is it existed in 1962 but not in the same form. It had Dudu Pukwana, Nick Moyake and Chris in it and then, after the '63 festival, they got the others -Mongezi Feza and Louis. There was another bassist and they got Johnny Dyani right at the end."
It was while McGregor was making the big band record, Jazz: The African Sound
for Gallo records, that Moholo came into the picture. It's a story that has a kind of serendipitous inevitability to it. They had recorded the album but were following this up with a couple of concerts, as Maxine explained,.