Montreux Jazz Festival is fifty. It's a significant milestone and cause for celebration. No doubt there will be an added festive element to this year's edition of the festival, founded by Claude Nobsalong with pianist Géo Voumard and writer René Langelin 1967. Yet for many, the celebrations will be tinged with sadness due to the absence of Nobs, who died in a skiing accident in 2013. Nobs may have passed, but his legend, his spirit, lives on, in the festival and in those who knew him.
Nobs, who would have turned eighty in February, did more than the Romans or the region's wine to put Montreux on the international map, by bringing the world's greatest musiciansand huge crowdsto the picturesque Swiss town. It's impossible to overestimate Nob's contribution to both the town and the country, after all, how many other town or city names are synonymous with a festival?
"Claude and his passion eventually changed the economy of the town of Montreux, and even affected the entire Swiss economy," notes John McLaughlin
, who first played MJF in 1972 and was a friend to Nobs for forty years, "only by virtue of his passion and love of music. What a guy!"
With Lake Geneva before it and the mighty Alps at its shoulder, Nobs' vision of a jazz festival in this idyllic setting could hardly have failed to attract musicians and audiences alike. With over 230,000 music lovers descending on Montreux during the festival's annual two-week run, Montreux Jazz Festival today ranks among the largest jazz festivals in the world.
A jazz festival? Well, that's certainly how it started out. The very first Montreux Jazz Festival hosted fifteen bands, ranging from washboard and cornet-driven New Orleans fare and straight-ahead small ensembles to big-band jazz. Topping the bill was Charles Lloyd
, leading a quartet featuring Keith Jarrett
, Jack DeJohnette
and Ron McClure
. Already by the second year of MJF the inclusion of soul queen Aretha Franklin signalled a widening of the musical parameters.
In 1969, blues-rock made its mark, with John Mayall
's Bluesbreakers, Rory Gallagher
's Taste and Ten Years After all appearing on a jazz-dominated program, along with progressive jazz-rockers Colosseum. The jazz police were already squirming in their seats.
Roberta Flack and Aretha Franklin both graced a still jazz-centric line-up in 1970, though Nobs was clearly already thinking outside the box. After attending the Isle of Wight festival in 1970 Nobs had in mind to bring Jimi Hendrix
and The Doors
to MJF, but both Hendrix and Jim Morrison, The Doors' lead singer, would be dead within a year.
Despite missing out on two of rock's most celebrated figures, Nobs' changing vision of the direction he wanted MJF to take was apparent by 1971. That year, blues legends Muddy Waters
, T-Bone Walker
and Lightnin' Slim
lit up MJF's stages, along with Bo Diddley
, rock 'n' roll pioneer Chuck Berry
, gospel singer Bessie Griffin and the folk duo of Richie Havens and Odetta.
Such programing moves perhaps shouldn't have come as a total surprise, for Nobs, who had been working for the local tourist board, first began promoting concerts in Montreux in the early 1960s, claiming later that he had to give away tickets for a concert by the little-known The Rolling Stones in 1964.
Another English band steeped in the blues that Nobs promoted in Montreux, outside the parameters of the festival, was Jethro Tull
, who played at the old Casino in 1969. "Of course, that was before it burned down, sending song-inspiring cloud of smoke across the water," recalls Jethro Tull founder and flute-player extraordinaire, Ian Anderson, alluding to the fire in 1971 that would inspire Deep Purple's "Smoke on the Water."
"Claude seemed like a nice guy and was very helpful in finding us accommodation in 1972 when we visited in the summer to work on a new album," says Anderson. Jethro Tull's Montreux rehearsals engendered A Passion Play
(Chrysalis, 1973) and the band would return in 1975 for sessions that would lead to Too Old To Rock 'n' Roll: Too Young to Die!
(Chrysalis, 1976). Although Jethro Tull didn't play at the MJF until 2003and then again in 2012Anderson and his wife had been smitten by Montreux and bought an apartment in the town centre.
Inevitably perhaps, Anderson got to know Nobs well over the years. "Claude had become a longstanding friend and we visited him many times in his famous chalet high on the mountain above the town where he hosted parties for the good and great of rock and jazz," Anderson relates. "Claude's childlike enthusiasm for music of all sorts, especially blues, was the driving force for his team of organizers."
When it came to the blues Nobs certainly indulged his passion, for the roll call of American blues artists to appear at MJF is truly impressive. In addition to the previously mentioned blues musicians, others to appear at MJF included Jimmy Witherspoon
, Taj Mahal
, B.B. King
who played no fewer than nineteen timesJohn Lee Hooker
, singer Etta James
, Buddy Guy
twelve appearances and countingOtis Rush
, Robert Cray, Albert King
, Freddie King
, harp master James Cotton
, Luther Allison
and Little Milton
The modern generation of blues players have also featured regularly at MJF, with the likes of Robert Cray
, Stevie Ray Vaughan
and Jeff Healey
all leaving a lasting impression.
To see American blues artists, the progenitors of this worldly music, in Montreux was a thrill for Nobs and MJF audiences alike, and the musicians were, as Anderson relates, received royally. "Claude introduced many American artists to Europe and the way in which they were feted and idolized by the European audiences must have been a surprise and delight to all of them."
A passionate harmonica player, Nobs never wasted an opportunity to sit in with the musicians, inevitably on a blues number. "Even in his final couple of years," recalls Anderson, "Claude still hosted the festival and briefly appeared to blow his blues harp with artists, including me, as part of the celebration of music and life which is the Montreux Jazz Festival."
For Anderson, Nobs' charisma, allied to his professional credentials in both tourism and the recording industry, were the twin engines driving the success story that is MJF. "Claude's powers of persuasion and his many contacts in the record industry and management companies across the world resulted in the MJF becoming the premier festival to bring together jazz, rock, blues and other eclectic mixes of music, and artists who might otherwise never have been seen together."
It wasn't just the diversity of the MJF's program that enticed music fans of all stripes to Montreux each July, but the chance also to see collaborations between artists in the legendary jam sessions that Nobs organizedand often spontaneously on the main stagesthat just didn't happen elsewhere. George Benson
with Chaka Khan and Ray Charles
, Jackson Browne with Stevie Ray Vaughan, to mention a couple.
In 1991 Nobs pulled off a major coup when he presented Quincy Jones
and Miles Davis
on stage for the very first time together. Not only that, but Nobs and Joneswho co-produced the festival from 1991 to 1993persuaded Davis to go against his career-long instincts and revisit old material, namely Birth of the Cool
, Porgy and Bess
, Miles Ahead
and Sketches of Spain
, his classic recordings made with Gil Evans
between 1949 and 1960.
With Davis in declining health, Wallace Roney
was in place to step up as and when required, but on the night Davis was inspired to play far more than anyone expected. Afterwards, Davis was so thrilled with the performance and the reception it received that he gifted Roney his signature red trumpet, and declared a desire to take the music around the world. Alas, Davis passed away just months later, making Miles and Quincy Live at Montreux
(Warner Bros, 1993) the last recording in his lifetime.
Though Quincy Jones had been the main instigator for the famous collaboration, Davis' respect and fondness for Nobs was more than likely a deciding factor too. Whenever Davis played MJF Nobs would provide him with a gleaming Ferrari to cruise around the Alpine roads. John McLaughlin remembers an incident that reveals something of the bond that Nobs had with Davis: "Claude liked clothes and always dressed well. One night, Miles was actually going on stage, and he saw the shirt that Claude was wearing, Miles said 'nice shirt Claude,' and Claude took the shirt off the next second and gave it to Miles, so Miles took off his own shirt and gave it to Claude!"
Would Davis would have bowed to the pressure to revisit his old Gil Evans-arranged music at any festival in the world other than MJF? Probably not. Nob's natural charm and sheer passion for the music, which enticed many an artist to MJF over the years, was likely a key factor. "Claude had an affection for musicians that I have only seen the equivalent of in India," says McLaughlin.
In 2010 McLaughlin was involved in one of the more unlikely reunions that Nobs instigated, when the late cancellation of Mellisa Auf der Maur due to a missed flight left a slot to be filled just before Roxy Music. McLaughlin was cycling by Lake Geneva with his wife when he received a phone call from Nobs asking him if he would consider joining forces with former Mahavishnu Orchestra colleague Billy Cobham
who lived in Bernto fill the vacant slot in the evening.
It was perhaps an ambitious request given that the pair hadn't seen each other for twenty five years. Nobs' powers of persuasion, however, did the trick and, with just half an hour to discuss a plan, and with no rehearsal, the duo reignited a very old, powerful flame on stage, to the delight of Mahavishnu Orchestra fans around the world.
Just a year later Nobs and MJF achieved another unexpected reunion when McLaughlin and Carlos Santana
co-led a concert for the first time since their 1973 tour to promote the collaborative effort Love, Devotion and Surrender
(Columbia). Nobs was in his element when he joined the two guitarists on stage for a blues jam late in the concert.
One-off reunions and gloriously eclectic jam sessions were one thing, but Nobs' instinct and joyful spontaneity also resulted in some magical moments that caught just about everybody by surprise.
Swiss percussionist Reto Weber
, a session musician at the Biel recording studio in the late 1960s, where many of the early recordings from the MJF were produced, recounts a remarkable tale that throws further light on Nobs and the spirit of MJF.
In 2010 Weber was touring with the Ayekoo drummers of Ghanasix young drummers from the National Ballet of Accra. Their tour took them through, Austria, Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland. One day the Ghanaian musicians asked Weber if they could visit Montreux and the famous jazz festival. Weber duly lent them his car. Weber picks up the story: "At five o'clock in the evening I got a call from the boss of the band. 'Hey Reto, can you come to Montreux? We will play tonight at the Montreux Jazz Festival.' I said, 'No, it's not true. It's impossible. You are not on the program.'"