In the first two parts of this series we looked at the origins of jazz in Japan and its adherence to the American style of composing, arranging and playing. Though jazz has been popular in Japan from the earliest days, it wasas in the United Stateshardly met with unanimous approval in a country that prized classical and indigenous folk music. Yamada Kôsaku, Japan's best-known composer and conductor of the '20s through the '40s, disparaged jazz as "noisy and obscene." The American press was often critical of early jazz, so some perspectives in their second-hand reporting of the phenomenon in Japan are likely to be biased. The Japanese press's reaction to the music likely rose and fell with political prescriptions but direct documents are inaccessible. Some reactions are described in archival newspaper passages.
In its article "Jazz Interests Japan More Than League," The New York Herald
of April 11, 1921 said "Infection of Frivolity Spreads Over Country...American jazz is making the world safe for dance maniacs...Human beings are after all a frivolous bunch, and apparently take greater delight in the 'shimmy' and fox trot than in a discussion concerning the world peace and democracy. At least, this is what is taking place among the people of the Mikado's empire." Washington, DC's Evening Star
of November 30, 1924 reported a "Ban On Jazz In Japan...Following the closing of all dance halls, Tokio [sic], Japan, banned all jazz music, starting the drive by confiscating all known phonograph records of jazz." The same newspaper's edition of November 18, 1930, reporting on "Jazz In Japan," notes that "Japanese jazz, founded upon the American article, has been raging in the islands of the Rising Sun. Educators and thinking persons of the country are becoming alarmed...many Japanese girls have developed a fondness for all the flapper ways..."
The immediate post-World War II years saw a rapid comeback of jazz music and a mirror reaction from cultural spheres of the '20s. These criticisms were buffered by the American occupation of the islands. By the late '50s native artists appeared with more frequency and the American brand of mainstream jazz shared the stage with hard bop, emerging free jazz and avant-garde music. Drummer Hideo Shiraki
became a well-known hard bop player in the '50s and '60s, later becoming one of the first Japanese musicians to incorporate traditional music into his compositions. Pianist Yosuke Yamashita
employs his hybrid of free and modal jazz, and has led a group with bassist Cecil McBee
, drummer Pheeroan AkLaff
and saxophonist Joe Lovano
. In 1973, Yamashita made a personal statement when he performed on a piano while it was engulfed in flames. Pianist Masahiko Satoh
began recording in the '60s and has worked with Anthony Braxton
, Joëlle Léandre
, Peter Brötzmann
, Ken Vandermark
and Paal Nilssen-Love
. Pianist Makoto Ozone recorded extensively with Gary Burton
, Teruo Nakamura
, and Roy Haynes
. Many of these Japanese artists have studied in and migrated to the United States. Multi-instrumentalist, composer and bandleader Satoko Fujii
has maintained a home in Tokyo and New York while covering much of the globe.
Fujii is one of the leading composers in music, a unique voice on piano and accordion, and a seemingly endless source of ideas. Constantly experimenting with concepts, timbres, and techniques, her music is genre-less and fearless. The Tokyo native began playing piano as a toddler and studied classical music through her teen years. In 1985 she began studying at Boston's Berklee College of Music and returned to Boston in the mid-'90s to study at the New England Conservatory. Her mentors at NEC included George Russell
, Cecil McBee, and Paul Bley
. Bley played piano duets on Fujii's debut release Something About Water
(Libra, 1996). The following year she formed her New York trio with bassist Mark Dresser
and drummer Jim Black
releasing seven albums. With the addition of Fujii's husband, trumpeter Natsuki Tamura
, in 2004 the trio transformed into the Satoko Fujii Four.
Fujii and Tamura embarked on their ongoing duo formation near the end of the '90s. Occasionally referred to as the NATSAT Project, the pair have released six albums on Libra: How Many?
(2002), In Krakow, In November
(2012), and Kisaragi
(2017). For all the warmth of these ventures, Fujii and Tamura are masters of technique and do not approach their music with an aspiration of accessibility.
During that time, Fujii also formed her namesake quartet with Tamura, bassist Takeharu Hayakawa, and drummer Tatsuya Yoshida. At the same time Fujii and Tamura joined trumpeter Itaru Oki
's sextet with saxophonist Keizo Nobori, bassist Hiroshi Funato, and drummer Jin Mitsuda. Both Fujii's quartet and Oki's sextet play a unique synthesis of jazz, rock, blues and traditional Japanese folk.
Fujii formed The Min-Yoh Ensemble in 2006, which included Tamura, trombonist Curtis Hasselbring
, and accordionist Andrea Parkins
. This quartet specialized in melding improvisation and native Japanese influences. In 2007, she established Ma-Do, another quartet playing in a warmer setting. In 2013, she formed the Satoko Fujii New Trio. Her undefinable but largely abstract quartet Kaze released their first album in 2011, later expanding with dual pianos and drums into the band Trouble Kaze.
While recording in over two dozen formations may seem to be the picture of structural uncertainty, Fujii's personnelparticularly in her large ensemblestell a different story. The composer's open style of improvisation extends to her band members and benefits from a core rotation with a lengthy history supporting her. In the mid-'90s, Fujii's Orchestra New York and Orchestra Tokyo were playing the same selections while the bandleader was noting their different readings. Her knowledge of each musician's sound and style leads her to compose with the particular strengths of her various groups in mind. Over the past two decades, Fujii has amassed a catalog of one-off and limited projects. She has recorded and performed with Myra Melford
, Misha Mengelberg
, Mark Feldman
, Carla Kihlstedt
, Joe Fonda
and several other artists.