F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote: "The American in Paris is the best American. It is more fun for an intelligent person to live in an intelligent country. France has only two things toward which we drift as we grow olderintelligence and good manners." And I would add great jazz!
Although many think that much of Paris
shuts down in mid-to late-summer, that's not true for most of the 30-some regular jazz clubs, although a few close for two weeks in August, the month when many Parisians are en vacances
Live jazz performances are abundant in Paris, but this was a new attraction when black soldiers first brought their American-born music to Europe during World War I and again during World War II. All the jazz venues mentioned have baby grand or upright pianos on their stages.
The most vintage dates to 1921 when Le Boeuf sur le Toit
opened as a cabaret; it relocated several times and now has a piano bar with jazz concerts scheduled only on Thursdays. This is where guitarist Django Reinhardt
is credited with originating French jam sessions that are still known as le boeuf
(beef), after he invited other musicians to join in after his paid sets ended. In 1940s, the American term "jam" was created, derived from a word of the 1730s for preserved fruit smashed into jars, reflecting the way after-hours musicians jammed free-form sounds together, rather than just playing written notes of the era's big-band music.
The next eldest of Paris clubs is Caveau de la Huchette
, open continuously since 1946 as a nightly venue in the Latin Quarter on the Left Bank. An all-ages swing-dance crowd regularly gathers in the underground club. Every band focuses on the swing, ballads and boogie-woogie of its original era, later adding bebop and Latin rhythms. In July and August, the subterranean performance area (space for 50 to 75) stays fairly cool, although some dancers bring towels and even fresh shirts or blouses. A steep and well-worn stone stairway leads down to bench seating and an elevated stage with an upright piano. I once overheard a young listener say the nightly "floor-show" of dancers looked like the set of an old movie. New Morning
opened in 1981 in north-central Paris with a concert by Art Blakey
and the Jazz Messengers performing in this warehouse-like space that seats 200. This has been the largest Paris venue, although shifting in recent years from pure jazz to more varied music, as have most of the longtime jazz festivals around the world.
Two years later, three Paris jazz clubs opened on the same narrow street, rue des Lombards on the Right Bank. Sunset-Sunside
opened in 1983 and doubled its space in 2001 by converting its underground restaurant, Sunset, into a second performance room. Jazz is booked nightly in both 50-seat venues that have appetizers menus. Next door is Baiser Salé
("salty kiss"), an upper-level bar with stage that seats 40. Duc des Lombards
club was added in 1984 along the same rue, remodeled a few years ago to seat 75 on two-levels with a small-plates menu. Devoted jazz fans soon labeled these clubs la triangle d'or de jazz
(the golden triangle of jazz), which it remains three decades later.
Two longtime sister supper clubs that book jazz are the intimate underground Le Petit Journal St. Michel near the Luxembourg Garden (est. 1971), and the spacious showroom-style Le Petit Journal Montparnasse that opened soon after, both with dinner menus.
One of the newer locales is Cave Du 38 Riv'
in the Marais district of Paris that opened in 2007. This narrow, low-ceiling caveau
is a two-flights-underground space (42 steps, elevator for the disabled or weak of limb). Local and touring European musicians are booked, as well as jam-session nights that attract younger fans who fill the 30-some low settees and a raised area of high-top tables and stools. Two earlier longtime subterranean jazz boites
that closed in the late 1990s were Le Petit Opportun and the Swing Club.
The most elegant locale for jazz, blues and pop music is the spacious lounge of the Hotel Meridien L'Etoile, where I was thrilled several years ago to hear Michel Legrand
himself play piano and sing. More compact venues include Le Caveau Des Oubliettes
(two tiny jail-themed subterranean rooms) that books mostly blues bands, and Café Universel
, a street-level no-cover club favored by Sorbonne students. Also long-term are Café Laurent
(piano duos/trios in the lobby bar of the Hotel d'Aubusson), Chez Papa Jazz Club, Swan Bar and Autour de Midi & Minuit
. There also are several boat-restaurants anchored on the Seine River that book solo or duo jazz artists on weekends.