Historians of jazz identify the African-American civil rights struggle circa 1945-1965 as the locus for the most active involvement of jazz music in expressions of social and political protest. One of the earliest recorded instances of explicit political protest in jazz, "Strange Fruit," was refused by Decca, singer Billie Holiday
's record label, for fear of reprisals from Southern radio stations and record stores. The independent Commodore label released the record in 1939; a searing indictment of lynching and a landmark political statement. Holiday paid a high price for performing "Strange Fruit" and for her refusal to conform to societal expectations of women entertainers: she was persecuted by U.S. narcotics enforcement agents to the point of being handcuffed to her hospital deathbed.
Billie Holiday's death in 1959, preceded by Lester Young
(known by fellow musiciansif not by the wider jazz audienceto have been severely abused while serving in the Army), corresponds with the recording of Charles Mingus' masterpiece Mingus Ah Um
. After Columbia Records executives declined to allow the lyrics of Mingus' attack on segregationist politicians, "Fables of Faubus," to appear in the recording, Mingus quit the label and recorded the original version for the independent Candid label, much as Billie Holiday had done, twenty years earlier.
Mingus, Max Roach
, Abbey Lincoln
, Nina Simone
and Harry Belafonte
, among many other artists, participated in marches and rallies, benefit concerts and church meetings, to advance the cause of civil rights. Responding to the continuing crises in African-American communities during the late '60s and early '70s, Archie Shepp
recorded Attica Blues
, Gary Bartz
and Nju Troop released Harlem Bush Music
, a favorite of members of the Black Panther Party, and Mingus wrote "Remember Rockefeller at Attica," and kept "Fables of Faubus" in his performing repertoire.
The situation for European jazz musicians in some respects paralleled that of their American counterparts. The 1968 uprisings occurred in the midst of an upwelling of free jazz and collective improvisation under the rubric of Emanzipation
, a conscious break from what was perceived to be the strictures of American jazz forms and practices. Free improvisation music is noncommercial, anti-hierarchical, and insofar as it operates outside the institutional walls of conservatory-based contemporary jazz, anti-establishment.
Today, music that calls out the legacy of oppression, neglect of cities, systemic violence and racism, spans the world from the post-colonial global south to the post-industrial global north. In an era of irreconcilable political polarization, growing economic inequality, environmental degradation, and social instability, the three albums reviewed in this article, composed by jazz artists working in the Netherlands, Canada and Germany, display a range of creative musical responses to times of crisis.
Teis Semey: Where the Fence Is the Highest
(TRPTK) Where the Fence Is the Highest
, an ambitious work of new creative jazz, heralds the arrival of Teis Semey
, a talented composer-guitarist. The Danish guitarist, a graduate of the Conservatorium van Amsterdam jazz performance program, has established a performing career in the Netherlands, earned praise from critics, and built a growing audience of enthusiastic fans. In his home country of Denmark as well as his current home in the Netherlands, there is deep resentment of immigrants and refugees, virtual walls between communities, and growing economic uncertainty, all of which are reflected in the title of the album, in texts threaded into the musical passages, and in Semey's own liner notes: Everything is interconnected...as with the pending climate change disaster, the increasing global gap between rich and poor, and a growing sense of losing grasp on what it factual, it feels kind of doomy to live these days... a reminder to stay true and authentic in the art we make.