This month, over a dozen pianists will participate in a free concert, Thelonious Monk at 92, at the World Financial Center in lower Manhattan. Seven of them, and two other pianists with an abiding interest in Monk, answered questions about Monk's music and more specifically, his piano playing, as influence and inspiration.
Jazz pianists may disagree about whether or not Thelonious Monk
was the "high priest" of bebop who, in Geri Allen
's words, "set the tone for the most revolutionary period in jazzbebop" or if he, as Randy Weston
says, "could never be called bebop" since he is a timeless artist who, according to Clarice Assad, "does not feel attached to any particular era, so always sounds fresh." But almost everyone agrees that Monk was unique, a pianist and composer like no other, who had his own sound and was, says Allen, "a pure innovator whose innovations were deeply rooted in his culture."
That culture, for Weston, traces back thousands of years to Africa. "I used to play with Ahmed Abdul-Malik, a bassist of North African heritage [who also can be heard on the Monk Quartet With John ColtraneAt Carnegie Hall
(Blue Note) CD] who also played the oud and qanun and could play all those in-between notes that I couldn't find on the piano. But Monk found them, found that sound and through him I found it. The only other one I can think of with that sound heritage is Duke Ellington. It reminds me of ancient Africa, the universal scale before the Western scale, that something magical that Duke and Monk put into the piano."
"Monk definitely comes out of that school of Ellington," says Jason Moran
, who earlier this year commemorated the 50th anniversary of Monk's orchestra concert at Town Hall
with a tribute that included multimedia aspects including films and recordings of the original rehearsals and concert. "He had an attack like Duke, the rhythmic approach to the piano as opposed, to simplify, to the melodic approach. He's from the more percussive side of a line that still stretches today. It does set people apart who approach the piano in that percussive way. The challenge is to make it sound good although not as many pianists do it. There's a distinct difference between the approach to the piano of Duke Ellington and Keith Jarrett and [the Duke's approach] is not a popular root."
"Anyone who plays the piano and really listens to Monk has to appreciate what he could do with the instrument," says Jim McNeely
, pianist and resident composer with the Vanguard Jazz Orchestra. "I have this image of Monk walking through the woods and finding this instrument and saying to himself: what could you do with this? He just played it his own way, forged his own language both harmonically and technically. Other guys adhered to a more standard piano technique and Teddy [Wilson] and Art [Tatum] could not have done the things they did if they played like Monk, but his technique served him well, that whole percussive attack and certain different voicings he had. The way I see it he never asked permission, just said this is what I'm hearing and did it with such conviction. He stuck with his own vision with absolute conviction throughout his career, knowing that it was right, even in the face of prevailing criticism."
That conviction is also an inspiration to Moran: "Direction is key and Monk had a very solid direction. He made a very conscious choice about how he is going to play his music and how his audience is going to receive it. If you didn't hear it 15 years ago, OK, he'll play it again; he's committed to his own sound. What was hip about Monk and his generation was that they were making strong decisions and really committing early on to them. That committal level is not the same today. Monk represents something for every musician today; whether they are straight-ahead or free, everybody has to deal with Monk."
"Monk's spirit says to me: Nothing is sacrosanct," states Armen Donelian
. "Everything may and must be deeply questioned in search of a personal aesthetic. I may not arrive at the same musical solution as Monk didhopefully, I won'tyet my search is inspired by Monk's relentless drive to deconstruct the expected and rebuild something strange and marvelous in its place." Harold O'Neal adds, "When I first heard Monk I immediately noticed I had heard no one like him before. And you can hear the presence of his influence in the pianists that came after him."
"Monk had a personal way of composing and playing," comments Emilio Solla
, that created his "own special musical world and spirit...with a strong personal signature."
So what was that personal signature and aesthetic of Monk's? What did it consist of and how did it develop?