Francisco Aguabella - congas A master percussionist who was born in Matanzas Cuba, Francisco Aguabella is one of the first eschelon of drummers who came to America and are responsible for all drummers that came after them," says Latin percussionist John Santos in the movie "Sworn To The Drum.” Francisco Aguabella was born October 10, 1925, and raised in the Matanzas drumming tradition of Cuba. In 1953, he immigrated to the United States and established himself in California as an olu batá (batá drummer). Batá drumming is a ceremonial musical style that plays an integral role in the African-derived religion of Santeria, practiced in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and, since the 1950s, in the United States. No other music of the Americas bears a more striking similarity to West African music than batá. Its set of three double-conical drums replicates the Nigerian Yoruba drum ensemble of the same name. Many of the rhythms closely resemble their African prototypes, and the Afro-Cuban language of Lucumi, in which Aguabella sings, is clearly a derivation of Yoruba. Before 1980, Aguabella and Julito Collazo were the only olu batá in the United States who had been initiated into a secret society of drummers designated to perform a highly sacred type of batá known as batá fundamento. The batá fundamento is an integral part of Santeria ceremonies in which an individual's initiation into the religion cannot be consecrated unless he or she has been presented before this sacred ensemble. Annually, Aguabella builds a shrine to his patron saint, Santa Barbara (Changó), and performs music at a birthday party held in her honor. It is an all-day celebration for invited friends, who are mainly, but not exclusively, members of the Santeria sect. "Santa Barbara knows that it is her birthday," Aguabella said. "I know how she feels. She feels content. If I do not honor her, I feel bad. That's why on Santa Barbara's Day, December 3, whatever work I'm doing, I work for nobody this day.... I love this saint very much.... I promised her that I would have a fiesta every year." Although Aguabella is widely respected for his sacred drumming, he is equally well known for his virtuosity in secular forms of Afro-Cuban music. The choreographer Katherine Dunham was so impressed with Aguabella's drumming that she invited him to join her company for tours of South America and Europe. The most influential of Aguabella's secular styles is the rumba, a complex of several musical genres that evolved in Cuba around the beginning of the twentieth century.