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History of Jazz Timeline: 1935

Armstrong tours Italy.
On Armstrong's return from Europe, he begins to record again, for Decca. See the GRP CD's Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra - Vol 1 and Vol 2 and the Classics CD Louis Armstrong and His Orchestra 1934-1936. Louie seems to be more relaxed, but his music is deteriorating.
Charlie Parker leaves school at fifteen. He had played baritone horn in the school band. He marries the nineteen year old Rebecca Ruffing.
Bennie Moten dies suddenly (from a botched tonsillectomy). His band scatters. Basie finds work in Kansas City and draws many former Moten band members into his new band. The best of all Swing bands has gotten its start.
Blues shouter Jimmy Rushing (formerly of Walter Page's Blue Devils) joins Basie Band.
Ellington records In a Sentimental Mood and the extended piece Reminiscing in Tempo which covers four sides. Billy Taylor joins the Duke.
The Swing band era opens with the sudden rise of Benny Goodman. Benny's band toured the U.S. from the east to the west with little success until August 21 when the band played the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles where much to his and his dejected band's surprise, they were a huge success and their fortune was sealed. The band had played the late night Jazz portion of Nabisco's radio show from New York and had developed a wide following among young adults on the west coast. But when they played elsewhere they flopped in front an older audience. They became confused and tried to play popular dance music. When they played this Pop music at the Palomar, they were flopping and Benny said, "If we're going to flop, at least we'll do it playing Jazz". They switched to Jazz and the rest is history.
Benny Goodman records Jelly Roll Morton's King Porter Stomp (same arrangement as Fletcher Henderson's 1932 New King Porter Stomp). In retrospect, Henderson's version is superior.
Teddy Wilson and Benny Goodman play together at a party. Benny is very impressed and later forms a trio with Teddy and Gene Krupa. This is the beginning of one of the first mixed race combos. Oddly enough, Jesse Stacy (a white pianist of the Hines style) comes to work with Benny's big band at the same time.
Roy Eldridge is recognized as the coming trumpet player. With his style, at first influenced by Armstrong and Henry "Red" Allen and by saxophonist Coleman Hawkins, he is thought to be the link between the Armstrong school of trumpet and the Bop or Gillespie school of trumpet. To view him as a link to Gillespie is to do a disservice to Roy.
During a concert at Glen Island Casino in May, the Dorsey brothers have a violent argument on stage over the tempo of a tune. Tommy walks off the stage and two new bands (The Tommy Dorsey Band and The Jimmy Dorsey Band) are formed.
Dizzy Gillespie drops out of school to go to Philadelphia with his mother. He begins to work in local bands.
Bunny Berigan becomes Goodman's principle trumpet player for a few months.
Ella Fitzgerald becomes Chick Webb's star.
Benny Carter goes to Europe.
There is a lot of Jazz action going on in England, more than in the rest of Europe.
Django and the Quintet of the Hot Club of Paris record Hoagy Carmichael's Stardust with Coleman Hawkins. It is clear the Django understands Jazz rhythm.
By now, a number of blacks have not only succeeded in Jazz, but some have become "legitimate" actors and singers too. For instance, Paul Robeson has become a well-respected actor and Marion Anderson a well-respected opera singer. This will set the stage for the "Bop Rebellion".
Acclaimed Jazz writer, arranger, composer, performer and critic Leonard Feather comes to the U.S. from England for the first time. Leonard will eventually settle here.
Jazz Hot is created in France by Charles Delaunay. This is the first Jazz journal in the world.
Swing has developed a language of its own. Some examples of Jazz related slang at this time follow:
Hot - a superlative meaning really good
Break it down - get hot, got to town
Freak Lip - a pair of lips that won't quit no matter how long or hard the musician plays
My Chops is Beat - when a brass man's lips give out
Wax a Disc - cut a record
Boogie Man - a critic
Joe Below - a musician who plays under scale
Chill ya - when an unusual hot passion gives you goose bumps

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Disclaimer: Though we have checked our facts, this timeline may contain erroneous information. If you discover errors or omissions, please bring them to our attention.

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