The Routledge Companion To Jazz Studies
Edited by Nicholas Gebhardt, Nicole Rustin-Paschal and Tony Whyton
ISBN: 978-1-138-23116-0 Routledge
Spoiler alert: this book may permanently alter many fixed notions of jazz history previously held by the reader. In fact, it would be a surprise if it didn't. For taken together, these forty-four essays by leading international jazz scholars / researchers, take firmly entrenched jazz narratives by the scruff of the neck and fairly shake them up.
Is the idea of spontaneous improvisation just so much baloney? Can Italy really
claim a hand in birthing jazz? Just what does the success of the blockbuster La La Land
say about the public perception of jazz? Is jazz more exclusionary and elitist than its adherents would perhaps care to admit? And was jazz diplomacy really just imperialism in disguise?
These and many other questions are raised, and some of them are even answered. But this is not a book about absolutes or definitive answers regarding the relaying of jazz history. If anything, it complicates the picture, and for good reason. Intended as a research resource for students, researchers and enthusiasts, The Routledge Companion to Jazz Studies
aims to sharpen the focus of critical thinking on jazz, thereby refining ways of understanding this perennially complex social music.
Weighing in at a concise ten pages or so eachincluding bibliography and notesthese essays ask big questions about jazz and race, jazz and gender and jazz and disability. They provoke debate about the formation of the jazz cannon and scrutinize the oft-pronounced claim that jazz has always been an internationally democratic force for the good. They question notions of jazz authenticity, ask what the 'free' in free jazz really means and examine the myriad intersections between jazz and popular culture.
Furthermore, several authors invite a profound rethinkbordering on the philosophicalabout improvisation and the creative process.
Divided into six thematic sections, the articles cover a lot of ground. From broad though penetrating historical perspectives of jazz to revealing studies of individual practitioners, and from jazz viewed through political, ideological and economic prisms, to salient contemporary issues in jazz culture, such as digitization, file- sharing, artificial intelligence and software improvising systems. No stone, it seems, is left unturned.
Diasporic jazz comes under the spotlight in specific studies on jazz cultures in Japan, Estonia, Brazil and South Africa, while author Bruce Johnson argues reasonably for counter narratives regarding the jazz cannon and jazz's creation, suggesting that jazz was not invented and then exported, but rather "was invented in the process of being disseminated.
You can imagine Wynton Marsalis
' blood boiling at such attempts to challenge a history that is practically set in stone, but if there's one thematic thread that runs through this collection of articles it's the idea that culture, and by extension jazz history, is a fluid, ever-shifting set of ideas and practices.
Marsalis is the focus of an even-handed article by David Ake, who recognizes the trumpeter's historical significance as the spokesperson for the neo- traditionalist revival of the 1980s. Getting to the crux of why the New Jazz Studies matter, Ake acknowledges that musicians and historians "have all benefited in various ways from the long backward glance that Marsalis and others facilitated.
Even Marsalis has turned his hand to rap, and a recurring theme of The Routledge Companion to Jazz Studies
is jazz's place in popular culture and the tensions between ideas of jazz as art and jazz as commerce. Catherine Tackley notes that for the general public in the UK, the image of jazz has long been one of a music both serious and historically important, though one that also contains elements of novelty, comedy and entertainment.
This complex mosaic of notions is, Tackley asserts, in "stark contrast with the way in which the genre is often understood within the jazz establishment as an ever-changing music at the cutting edge of musical development."
For Alan Stanbridge, who analyses sentimentality in the songs of Oscar Hammerstein and in Fletcher Henderson
's populist repertoire of the 1930s, jazz has always trod... "the rather broad and blurry line between constructed notions of 'art' and 'commerce.
Elsewhere, examples abound of jazz's multi-media/popular character. Julianne Lindberg highlights jazz's early associations with vaudeville, the theater and Broadway musicals, while John Gennari analyses Jason Moran
's embrace of conceptual art.
The tensions between jazz as pop music and jazz as art music is also vividly illustrated by David Bracket, who highlights how the avant-garde jazz and soul- jazz of the 1960s exemplified the divide between artistic autonomy and greater commercialism.