The late 1960s through the 1970s and '80s were difficult years for jazz and jazz-derived improvised music, but they were also years that saw musiciansby necessityrespond to these difficulties with creative solutions. With first the rise and then the commercial dominance during those years of rock music and the corresponding eclipse of jazz, creative musicians in various parts of the country began to organize themselves into artist-run groups in order to ensure the survival of the music both commercially and creatively. Perhaps the best known of these artist collectives is the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM), founded in Chicago
in 1965 and still active today, but other cities were home to similar groups: the Black Artists Group in St. Louis
; the Pan-Afrikan Peoples Arkestra/Underground Musicians Association in Los Angeles
; and the various cooperatives and partnerships formed by musicians associated with the so-called loft scene in New York. New Haven
, Connecticut also was home to an active, artist-run group of its own: the Creative Music Improvisers Forum (CMIF).
As in Chicago, St. Louis, Los Angeles and New York, in New Haven improvised music informed by the avant-garde or free jazz aesthetic was at the margins of a larger jazz scene that was itself becoming commercially marginal. At the same time, though, it was a music undergoing a creative ferment that was specifically tied to its location. South Central Connecticut in the 1970s was home not only to Yale, whose students included Anthony Davis
, Jane Ira Bloom
, George Lewis
and others who would contribute significantly to the development of new improvised music, but also to Wesleyan University in nearby Middletown, which since the early 1960s had been developing an ethnomusicological programa program that would exert a notable influence on creative musicians interested in exploring the traditions of non-Western musics. It was also the place where a critical mass of forward-thinking musicians happened to emerge. Some were local professionals, some were professionals from elsewhere, some were students, but all shared an interest in new developments in improvised and composed music and in the supporting social infrastructure that was beginning to be built by creative musicians around the country. Among them were the five founders of CMIF: trumpeter Leo Smith (before he adopted the name "Wadada"); vibraphonist Bobby Naughton
, saxophonist Dwight Andrews
, double bassist and multi-instrumentalist Wes Brown
; and percussionist Gerry Hemingway
Smith was a major catalyst not only for forming CMIF specifically, but more generally for bringing together and inspiring like-minded artists in the New Haven area. Of the collective's principal figures, he had probably taken the most circuitous route to New Haven. Born in Mississippi, he went to Chicago in 1967 after serving in Army bands that toured Europe and the United States. His time in Chicago would prove to be pivotal not only for his personal development as an artist, but for the New Haven scene he would eventually help to galvanize. For, shortly after his move to Chicago, he became a member of AACM. His experience in that collective was critical for demonstrating how artists could form an effective, mutually supportive community to sustain themselves and their artistry in challenging circumstances. One lesson he took away from Chicago was that the individual artist, if he or she were to thrive precisely as an artist, must necessarily be involved in the collective life of the larger community.
While in Chicago, Smith worked closely with Anthony Braxton
and Leroy Jenkins
, with whom he formed the Creative Construction Company. In 1969, he moved to Paris
with Braxton and Jenkins and stayed for a year, giving performances and making recordings with them and with other musicians who happened to find themselves there, the Art Ensemble of Chicago among them. After returning to America he relocated to the New Haven area, in 1972.