Question: What values does a jazz education offer beyond the music itself?
Artists have always had a supply and demand problem. Since time immemorial there have been more people with creative ideas than an audience to communicate them to, especially if the art demands more than a cursory attention span. In the current world of jazz education, the situation vis a vis graduating more and more of the most equipped musicians in history (every year more so) in stark contrast to the scarcity of paid performance and recording opportunities has assumed epic disproportion. To deny this would be like ignoring global warming. Serious educators are and should be concerned. Discussions on the subject are sometimes uncomfortable, but are nonetheless taking place worldwide. Notwithstanding that this situation might differ in degree from country to country or even regionally (all trends have their own natural ebb and flow), it is incumbent that responsible educators address this issue.
The standard response has traditionally been that it is not our responsibility to be concerned with the vocational aspects of an arts education. Our job is the transmission of knowledge, peripherally, if at all, addressing matters concerning the ramifications of making a living pursing one's art in the "real" world. This viewpoint does not hold up under scrutiny and is at the minimum a matter of principle and ethics, let alone economics if one considers the rising cost of a college education worldwide and the financial debt that a young person will be straddled with from the onset of their "real" life. Obviously, the situation in America vis a vis the cost of a college education is the most glaring and outrageous example of this part of the problem. Responsible educators should have something to offer these young men and women beyond cliches that is relevant and specific, at the least enumerating proven attributes of a jazz education that go beyond the music itself and will enrich their lives. Yes, Coltrane (and other artists) offer a high aesthetic and spiritual plane, but what about the here and now?
I think it is safe to assume that most students (and their teachers) would in a perfect world, choose to play and communicate their art while maintaining a steady financial basis. When I address my master's degree students at the Manhattan School of Music the first day of class I ask them point blank if they could have it their way, how many would rather contemplate questions of harmony, rhythm, etc., instead of having to deal with making a living, the most obvious route being teaching. The obvious response is unanimously 100% towards playing. This is after all what most of us dreamed of when we became enamored of jazz way before thoughts of a formal education surfaced. It's possible that on a case by case basis a certain measure of success may somehow occur to a gifted, deserving and fortunate individual. But for the majority of young aspiring students looking towards the future this scenario may not happen for reasons that are well documented (end of record business, venues closing, arts funding down, etc.)
What values and/or skills have our students learned through the study of music, of jazz specifically, that will be of use in the world and life they will most likely encounter? I have enumerated what I consider these core values to be using my personal concepts, all of which can easily be described in multiple ways.
BEYOND THE MUSIC
Jazz skill (learned): Spontaneous improvisation.
Life skill (transferred): The level of personal honesty that an individual brings to a playing situation is a given since there is nowhere to hide when improvising in the jazz tradition. Who you are and what you represent go beyond the here and now touching upon deep philosophical and spiritual aspects of being alive.
Key concept: Honesty.
Jazz skill: Soloing.
Life skill: Having the ability and attitude necessary to assume leadership, meaning to take charge when and if required; also to hand over leadership unconditionally when the situation calls for it.
Key concept: Leadership and follower abilities.
Jazz skill: Soloing as a "multitasking" activity.
Life skill: Dealing with a lot of information quickly; ability to integrate and synthesize information in a creative fashion.
Key concept: Clarity of thought.
Jazz skill: Learning from mentors.
Life skill: Being able to learn from older mentors by graciously accepting their wisdom as a vital part of the learning process. This implies suspension of judgment as to the immediate personal value of the material offered.
Key concept: Experiential learning.
Jazz skill: Participating in a group effort through ensemble collaboration.
Life skill: Maintaining an open and respectful attitude towards other group members by working with them as peers, regardless of age, gender, proficiency level, nationality, religion, race, etc. This infers that being better at a task does not mean personal superiority or the opposite.
Key concept: Mutual respect.
Jazz skill: Realizing one's unique "voice."
Life skill: By honing one's own vision, the individual assumes an active role towards changing and improving a given situation by offering unique and personal ideas towards that end. This involves critical and creative thinking, honest self evaluation, much discipline and a desire to change one's status quo towards discovering a better way to accomplish something.
Key concept: Clarity of vision.
Jazz skill: Knowing the "standard" repertoire (history and traditions) as it is along with the desire and ability to vary these set directives in creative and multiple ways, both spontaneously as well as pre-planned.
Life skill: Being able to adjust and change direction in a situation already framed by a given set of rules and conditions which may or may not encourage new discoveries and innovation; seizing the moment and affecting immediate change while at the same time being actively involved in the process itself; having the necessary confidence to accomplish this goal with the awareness that the final result might not be realized until later with no guarantees concerning the outcome.
Key concept: Flexibility.
Jazz skill: To be able to "swing" meaning being part of the surrounding context ("groove").
Life skill: Being part of the creative process taking place; to energize and be energized by interacting with the involved parties towards realizing a goal; feeling a "joie du vivre" through being involved in a group effort.
Key concept: Commitment.
Jazz skill: Composing original music, etc.
Life skill: Creating something new and/or modifying an already established tradition or practice based upon one's imagination, skills and experiences.
Key concept: Individual creativity.
Jazz skill: Being in the moment, aware of what is happening around you (in a playing situation).
Life skill: An open attitude towards the new and unexpected without fear or immediate judgment; realizing that out of the old comes the new to be embraced and refined as befitting the specifics of a situation.
Key concept: Awareness.
Jazz skill: Interaction on stage; communication with an audience; working within one's immediate musical community.
Life skill: Realizing your relationship to one's direct working and social environment, meaning the immediate group as well as society at large; the ability to see the "big" picture in both one's private and public life.
Key concept: Citizenship.
Jazz skill: Being an entertainer and communicator.
Life skill: Realizing the social component and purpose of your work; the ability to offer one's ideas and creative work in a manner that will successfully convey ideas and concepts to a given audience for consideration.
Key concept: Communication.
Jazz skill: Being an artist
Life skill: To recognize the deep intrinsic values of what one does in life on both a practical and spiritual level; communicating core universal values (truth, beauty, compassion, etc.) in a way that both educates and entertains.
Key concept: Spirituality.
John Dewey, one of America's foremost thinkers on education:
"Each (individual) shall have the education which enables him to see within his daily work all there is in it of large and human significance... first and foremost to teach habits of learning."
Special thanks to Walter Turkenburg, Jari Perkiomaki and those educators who offered comments.
I was first exposed to jazz circa 1973, when I met a fellow who ran Kappy's Record Store over near 10th Ave., on 42nd St. in NYC. We really clicked and when I told him I played piano and went to Music & Art HS, and had just started at City College of NY as a music major, he asked if I liked jazz...I said yes but I didn't know much about it, but that I did have sheet music for many popular 1920's through 1940's tunes by noted composers (Porter; Gershwins; Irving Berlin; Rodgers & Hammerstein/Hart; Jerome Kern; Lerner & Loewe; etc.) that my mother had sung beautifully starting in the 1940's including tons of famous show tunes, and I played many of those songs already
I was first exposed to jazz circa 1973, when I met a fellow who ran Kappy's Record Store over near 10th Ave., on 42nd St. in NYC. We really clicked and when I told him I played piano and went to Music & Art HS, and had just started at City College of NY as a music major, he asked if I liked jazz...I said yes but I didn't know much about it, but that I did have sheet music for many popular 1920's through 1940's tunes by noted composers (Porter; Gershwins; Irving Berlin; Rodgers & Hammerstein/Hart; Jerome Kern; Lerner & Loewe; etc.) that my mother had sung beautifully starting in the 1940's including tons of famous show tunes, and I played many of those songs already. SOOOO... he started me off LP's by Oscar Peterson, Art Tatum, Bud Powell, Errol Garner, Bill Evans, Monty Alexander, Charlie Byrd, and Dave Brubeck... does it get any better than that? ...No, it doesn't. I was hooked!!
I met and had a master class with the late music giant John Lewis, leader of the Modern Jazz Quartet! This was at CCNY in 1977. I was blessed! It was an incredible class... how could it have been anything else?!?!
The first jazz record I bought was...I bought numerous records from my friend at the record store, as mentioned above. He introduced me to nothing but music giants/legends! I think The Dave Brubeck Quartet, Greatest Hits, was actually the first one.
My advice to new listeners... study first--understand the rudiments--solfeggio, keys, scales, and basic chords. Read a book or take a class that includes the study of chord progressions, especially in jazz. It should ideally be a piano class so you can play multiple notes together. Have a good EAR or else it's not really worth it in my view...to become a musician, a good EAR for music is about as fundamental as breathing! Learn to read chord charts--i.e., lead sheets - wherein you play various voicings of the chords--major, minor, dominant 7th (alterations of these, you can learn over time - the basic chords are most important for starters), plus the melody, on the piano or keyboard. If you have to read the exact notes, then it's not the same as actually internalizing it & getting it all into your head. If you can do this, I think you're ready not only for listening to jazz, but understanding many concepts of it! Of course...anyone can listen to jazz... but I think it's so good to also have a grasp of it.