The Story of Jazz Guitar
While in its early days, jazz guitar was considered a rhythm instrument alongside the banjo of Dixieland. In 1940, Charlie Christian and his Gibson ES-150 changed that and elevated guitar to lead instrument status alongside the saxophone and trumpetinstruments that could acoustically cut through the sound of a piano-bass-drums rhythm section. Here, we encapsulate some of the progenitors of jazz guitar and their contributions to the music.
- The Beginnings: Blind Lemon Jefferson
- Eddie Lang / Eddie Durham / Lonnie Johnson
- Django Reinhardt / Charlie Christian / Tiny Grimes
- Herb Ellis / Barney Kessel / Charlie Byrd
- Wes Montgomery / Kenny Burrell / Joe Pass / Jim Hall
- George Benson
- John McLaughlin / John Scofield / Mike Stern
Blind Lemon Jefferson played the blues, the early blues in the 1920s and later, but he played long intricate solo lines to accompany his singing. These lines inspired his teenage guide of the time, T Bone Walker (later famous in the '40s as a jump/R&B player/singer) and, through him, BB King. If he was heard by jazz players, he must have had an influence. It is also likely that the "Spanish tinge" (a term used by Jelly Roll Morton to help explain the jazz of New Orleans) included Spanish guitar, with all its soloing: see for example the Spanish guitar composer Tarrega, active into the early 20th Century. Tarrega himself had been prone to running away from school as a child to hear gypsy music, so a possible gypsy element (pre- Django Reinhardt) may also have had an influence on the early jazz guitar.
Eddie Lang / Eddie Durham / Lonnie Johnson
In any event, by the late-1920s-early-'30s two guitarists had become well known in jazz. The first was Eddie Lang, famous for accompanying/playing with violinist Joe Venuti. Lang was also was an accompanist for Bing Crosby. Although he died in 1933, his fame didn't and he is a jazz legend.
Here is a rare clip of Lang and Venuti, in color:
The American/Italian Lang also played with the black Lonnie Johnson under a blues pseudonym, Blind Willie Dunn: Lonnie Johnson transcended genres, playing blues, folk blues and jazz, including a session with the early Duke Ellington Orchestra, where he is the featured soloist. Eddie Durham was a little later: he was an arranger with Count Basie in the mid and late '30s. However, he is also known as the first utilizer of an electric guitar, though he did not solo to any extent. That was left to the incomparable Charlie Christian.
In France in the early-'30s there was a young gypsy guitarist who had burnt two fingers of his fretting hand to the state of useless (?) appendages, in a caravan fire; Django Reinhardt. Possibly still the most extraordinary guitarist to ever live, Reinhardt played American jazz tunes, with a few of his own also, such as "Swing 39" and the very famous slow tune "Nuages" ("Clouds").
While every person of intelligence who knows music knows Django Reinhardt, every jazz musician knows Charlie Christian. Possibly the inventor of modern jazz (because he was on record, in 1939 with Benny Goodman, before any of the others), his guitar style is very fluent and essentially not duplicable. It's too fluent. Despite his revolutionary music, like Eddie Lang he also died very young, in 1942 at the age of 25. This was when his great (eventual) successor, Wes Montgomery (see below), heard him as a nineteen year old and decided to play guitar.
Here is a clip of Christian's famous big band record "Solo Flight" with Benny Goodman's orchestra (1941):
Tiny Grimes was not a very famous guitarist, but he backed/partnered Charlie Parker on his earliest ("indie") recordings in 1944. Soon many other guitarists also adopted the bebop style.
As bebop came to be replaced by cool jazz (Miles Davis in New York and West Coast jazz), jazz guitar broadened into the musical mainstream. Herb Ellis, for example, was in the Oscar Peterson Trio from 1952-'58 (replacing the Trio's earlier guitarist Barney Kessel). Charlie Byrd, (after studying with classical guitar maestro Andre Segovia, brought bossa nova to the world with tenor saxophonist Stan Getz on their 1962 album, Jazz Samba (Verve).
Later, all three of these guitarists would perform and record live at the Concord Jazz Festival and elsewhere as the Great Guitars unit, making many flowing recordings of classic jazz tunes.
A great Charlie Byrd album is Blue Byrd (Concord Jazz, 1978). He also recorded intricate solo versions of tunes including"Moonlight Serenade" and "Something."
Tal Farlow was a very fast and fluid modern jazz guitarist who rose in the 1950s. In the clip below he talks about his influences and how jazz guitar existed in the earlier days. The tune played is Charlie Christian's "Airmail Special":
Almost as famous, and almost as laid back, is Kenny Burrell. A favorite guitarist of Jimi Hendrix, his Midnight Blue (Blue Note, 1960) is a midnight jazz classic, and much imitated. I still have to identify and levy deserved justice on the UCLA student organizer who did not schedule an accurate time listing of performers at a UCLA jazz and reggae festival in 2006, so that I and a Hollywood film editor I met at the festival both missed Burrell (he hardly ever plays). I did, however, see John Scofield:
Joe Pass was a follow-on from the guitarists in group IV. Most famous as a solo performer, melody and chords blending in his brilliant style, he was an even bigger household name than Ellis, Byrd and Kessel. Indeed, he even physically resembled both Eddie Lang and Django Reinhardt.
Jim Hall came to prominence in the late-'50s-early- '60s playing with Jimmy Giuffre, Ella Fitzgerald, Sonny Rollins and Bill Evans. In this clip, with Sonny Rollins, he plays fast clusters of notes that look towards George Benson: