John Hollenbeck: Exploring the Boundaries, Part 1-2
AAJ: The next name I'm going to mention is Meredith Monk.
JH: Well, Meredithalong with Bobis kind of the other important figure in my musical life. I got to know her through Theo Bleckmanhe was in her ensemble. She used to work with Colin Walcott and when he passed away, she stopped working with percussion. That was fifteen, maybe twenty years ago. So it was a big deal for her to use a percussionist again; when I came in it was a really emotional experience for her. I never worked with anyone who listened to music on such a sensitive, emotional level. I would just come in and play, improvise, and she would sometimes cry a little. It was very moving for her and for me. She's a really intuitive musician. She's just now writing some pieces for orchestra and string quartet where things are not so loose and they're written down, but for the most part she works collaboratively, so we kind of just get together and improvise. Then through that, pieces come out. There's usually some sort of theater involved in it and it's really interesting. It's not jazz-like at all. It's really completely different from everything else I do. I'm working mostly with singers in the group, which is very interesting, and I'm singing a little bit myself. We have a piece that's about half-done, and in that piece, the musicians are onstage, and sometimes the whole ensemble does things together. I may be involved in some theater.
AAJ: You're getting more and more known as a composer and bandleader. But you've certainly been a sideman with a lot of people and you still do a lot of sidework. You're on the new Fred Hersch CD and you're playing right now in Europe with the Nenad Vasilic Ensemble. At this point in your career, is it different to be drumming for other people? Do you find your playing is different than it is when you're leading your own groups?
JH: When I'm a sideman I can be a little bit freer and actually concentrate much more on the drumming, so it tends to be more creative. When I'm leading my own band there's a lot of other things that are going on so I tend to just try to hold things together and maybe direct things, but I don't have enough room in my head to work creatively as much as I can when I'm a sideperson. When I'm a sideperson I really don't have to worry about anything else but the music. So it's really nice to have a balance; I just did two weeks with my quintet, and now I'm doing two weeks as a sideman and it's really great to have to only worry about the music for a few weeks.
AAJ: Let's talk about composing. A lot of your compositions are pretty dense, and they often have several sections with a lot of different things going on. When I listened to them, I found myself becoming curious about your composing process. How do you begin to write a song like "Abstinence?" What's the kernel the song begins with?
JH: Some composers find some sort of code, some sort of system, and they write a series of pieces following that system. I respect that but I've never been attracted to that method. I really try to make each piece its own thing, its own universe. I think I'm pretty successful at that, but even if I weren't, it's more important that the process of each piece be different. So with each piece, the process of writing it has to be different in some way for me. So with "Abstinence," for instance, I was working with this technique where you take a word and then you transfer the letters of that word to pitches. So, for instance, Bach did it a lot, he put his own name into his pieces a lotcomposers have done this for a very long time. So "Abstinence" basically came from looking at that word and just noticing the way it looked: there's some repetition, and some letters are next to other ones, and it seemed like an interesting word. So I put it to some pitches and came up with a little phrase that sounded nice to me. From there, the piece flowed pretty quickly. There are two sections: an A section and a B section, and the A section is based completely on that, and the B section is based on the pitches that aren't used in the A section. Also I was thinking of the way a pop tune would have a little refrain, so it more or less has a little verse, and then a little refrain. That's the basic version of "Abstinence"; I recorded that with my quintet, and then arranged it for big band with a bunch of other sections that are still really just coming from the original A section/B section.
AAJ: Some of your songs like "Folkmoot" and "A Blessing" are commissioned pieces. I want to know how something like that comes about. And when you write something on commission, are there any parameters stated that you have to follow?
JH: Well, yes. It's similar to what an architect might be involved in; an architect wants to do this but a client says, "Actually, I need this and this and this." Those two pieces were commissioned for IAJE [International Association of Jazz Educators], which is more or less a competition: you send a tape of some other pieces and whoever wins has to write a piece for a debut for the next year for the convention. But I've also written a few commissioned pieces for some groups over here in Germany and some of them have been much more specific where they say, "here's the title of the piece, here's the melody," something like that. And sometimes I have to say, "wait a minute, hold on, I need to title my own piece, and I may be able to use that melody, but maybe not"to me, it's like when I read about Frank Lloyd Wright or some other architect working with a client. It's a creative process but there are practicalities to be thought about. Usually, when you do a commission, it's almost always for a certain amount of time: "we need an eight-minute piece." Some of these pieces I've written for German ensembles, they say, "we need a ten-minute piece and it's going to be played after a Stravinsky mass." Then they might go into some detail about what they think would be a good idea to happen there. So they have the whole program already and they're telling you where your piece is going to be in the program. I don't really have a problem with that; it's kind of interesting for me. Sometimes all that structure makes more freedom for me to move around within that structure.