NPM: You know what I mean [laughing]. So there were these kinds of things that I'd been listening to, and I felt that I wanted to reflect those kinds of music. So that's where Khmer came from, really. I was working pretty closely with a sound engineer named Ulf Holand; we were just working in between other things, and it took quite a while. I think I started this album in 1994 or something. For me, it really was a natural development, so I was really, really taken by surprise when I saw the reaction to it when we finished. It suddenly becamein my worlda big success. So for me, it was quite shocking. I thought, "Yeah, maybe I'll sell a thousand, two thousand. Butagain, in my musical worldit created a huge impact! And it was really only the result of the music I had been listening to. Actually, there were lots of things from the eighties as well. I was really not listening to jazz very much; I listened more to sort of underground music, rockish kind of dark stuff. Like [Berlin techno duo and record label] Basic Channel, [techno label] Chain ReactionBerlin minimalist techno. I was inspired by all sorts of things, and Khmer was the result.
It really just came down to choosing direction. I had to choose where I wanted to go with those influences. I wanted contrast; if you have contrast put together in a musical way, that creates tension and really appeals to me. So I wanted contrasts; I wanted to put together songs, sounds, tonalities, noises, electronic and acoustic beatsall of these things. I didn't look at it as being something very new, actually. It was something people had been doing for quite a while, in a way.
AAJ: But I think the way you re-conceptualized those elements on Khmer really was new. It was more than just the sum of those influences.
NPM: I won't argue [laughing]. No, it's nice that people experience it like that. It's nice.
AAJ: Obviously, there is a significant technological aspect to your music; there's a goodly amount of equipment involved in the creation of your sound, including the gear that creates your trumpet sounds. During the years you created Khmer, was there very much of a learning curve in terms of mastering the equipment?
NPM: First, I will say that there is a lot of acoustic trumpet on Khmer. Most of it is acoustic, actually. There's a lot of acoustic on Solid Ether, too. I've always played a lot of acoustic trumpet. It's like two different things for me: I play the acoustic trumpet and I play the electric trumpet, and the two things are really separated in a way. So I have a completely clean trumpet microphone, an [Electro-Voice] RE20, that just goes to front of house. And on the electronic sidewell, it happened by coincidence, how I've discovered some of these things. I was using a Danish effect box, which is basically used for guitars. It has a very good harmonizer. It's made by TC Electronic. So I was connecting this unit to a Whammy [harmonizing, pitch-bending pedal]an old Whammy, a Whammy-2. It's the black one; I don't think they make them anymore. So it's more of a stepless harmonizer, so you can go [his voice gliding up and down], "wheeeeeeeeeeooooooo! But then you can also take it in very small steps. And I just connect it to one of the sides, because it's sort of a fake stereo. It's mono in and stereo out. And then I found I can make progressions just by using some specific programs on the Whammy, because the left side is static and the right side is movable. So you can create harmonic progressions.
So I was just checking stuff out, just trying things and suddenly this all happened by coincidence. So there are some other thingsusing the harmonizer for different things, using filters, just things I've been developing over the years. I haven't done that much lately. Actually, I'm now trying to think about the possibility of using the computer instead of carrying around all these huge things. Then I'd just have a pedal board which would control things along with the computer, and then some [audio software pioneers] Native Instruments things. I haven't really started checking it out yet.
AAJ: Some of the players on Khmer and its follow-up CD Solid Ether, are musicians that are still your associates today. Guitarist Eivind Aarset and drummer Rune Arnesen appeared on Khmer, and DJ Strangefruit (Paal Nyhus) and vocalist Sidsel Endresen are featured on Solid Ether. Solid Ether is, like Khmer, a seminal recordingI think "Kakonita and "Vilderness remain important songs in your body of work, and they're featured on your new American Compilation album. Not counting any remixes, this is your body of work on ECM. How influential was [ECM label head/producer] Manfred Eicher upon this recordings? Was his influence always a positive one? Was there any way in which he encouraged things that you wouldn't have chosen to do?
NPM: Well, there are two answers to that. One answer is that he is very influential on Norwegian contemporary improvised music. Very much so. And he and I became friends. So when I started to do Khmer on my own, I asked him, "Do you want to release a solo album from me? It's not going to be two-days-in-the-studio-and one-day-mix kind of thing. It's going to be a produced record that I'm going to spend a lot of time on. And he said, "Yes, sure. So we were working and he said, "It needs more focus. And I said [laughing], "Oh, yeah, I agree very much! So I was focusing more on getting it more together. Then he came into the studio for one hour or something on Khmer, and just changed one of the songstook away the trumpet and put it somewhere else. So he was in the process. But as a producer, in the way people think of producers, he wasn't really involved very much. And with Solid Ether, I just sent him a finished master.
But in a sense, he was more like a film producer. If you're the producer of a film, you don't have to have anything to do with what the film is like. You can think of it like thatif you want to be nice. But then, I started to think about all the work I put in there and I felt it was very strange that I should just give it away for what was not too decent a deal. So I created a company, really just a paper company. I wanted to have the rights to my own music and license it out, and ECM didn't do that. So I just had to leave them. That is [laughing] one version. That's the good version. But basically, that's what it is. And my problem with ECM was really my problem with the whole businessand ECM are business people. They are no worse and no better than anyone else, except that they have extremely strong intent and taste when it comes to their profile. Which I really admire.