ECM, ACT, Winter & Winter, FMP, MPS, ENJA... Germany sounds like a generous land for creative jazz record labels.
ENJA Records, the Münich-based jazz label, was founded in 1971 by Matthias Winckelmann and Horst Weber. For the last forty years ENJA has built an impressive catalog, with more than seven hundred releases that cover a wide range of the jazz history.
At the early stage Winckelmann and Weber focused on the avant-garde jazz, mainly from Europe and Japan. By the end of the 1970s, some of the major American representatives from the free jazz scene also joined ENJA, amongst them Archie Shepp
, Cecil Taylor
and Eric Dolphy
In 1986, Winckelmann and Weber decided to go their separate ways and put an end to their 15-year collaboration. Winckelmann remained as the head of ENJA, signing some historic jazz masters like Chet Baker
, Kenny Barron
and McCoy Tyner
. Then, during the 190s, ENJA opened its discography to world music-centric jazz artists including Rabih Abou-Khalil
and Dhafer Youssef
Nowadays, although Winckelmann pays particular attention to contemporary European jazz, ENJA does continue to play the cards of diversity, from Abdullah Ibrahim
to Bennie Wallace
, with a roster of more than two hundred artists. All About Jazz:
ENJA is 40 years old. Could you tell the story of the label's birth? Matthias Winckelmann:
Well, we [Horst Weber ] met at the first tiny jazz club in Münich when I was still a senior student at Münich University, in the late sixties, I think. Horst was a clothes designer, and an avid jazz fan as well, which sometimes took him to Japan, where he made good contacts with the jazz scene. Japan, in those days, was a great jazz country. One day he came to me and told me how the Japanese liked Mal Waldron
, the last pianist for Billie Holiday
. I had just met Mal, here in Münich, and we were good friends. So we decided to do a production and offered it, when done, to a major Japanese label. Waldron's Black Glory
(ENJA, 1971) was the start. AAJ:
How come you jumped into jazz music rather than classical (in line with the long and rich German tradition), or the rock music of the 1970s, which would have undoubtedly been more profitable? MW:
I was hooked by jazz at age 17, when I heard Charlie Parker
for the first time, after being fascinated by Louis Armstrong
. I cared a lot about classical music; it was in my upbringing and I went to concertsmostly of the modern kindregularly. But the jazz experience went deeper. Rock, I thought, was utterly boring mass music. When we started ENJA, we didn't think of making money above the minimum. It was pure passion. AAJ:
Why is jazz different from other music and what was it about the music that moved you? MW:
The feeling of a mid-tempo Elvin Jones
drum accompaniment is a unique adventure which you do not find in any other music. It combines subtlety and intensity in a gentle way. Why do you love one girl more than another? AAJ:
Coming back to ENJA, what does it stand for? MW:
Originally it didn't stand for anything. We thought of a nice, female ending, pronounceable in many languages, shifted around letters, later gave it the meaning European New Jazz, and went into American straight-ahead jazz, after a short avant-garde hiatus. AAJ:
How would you describe the different eras of ENJA's life? MW:
In the beginning, the European and Japanese avant-garde artists like Alexander von Schlippenbach
, Terumasa Hino
, Albert Mangelsdorff
, Yosuke Yamashita
. Then, we added newer US artists like Archie Shepp, Cecil Taylor, Leroy Jenkins
and Eric Dolphy. Later, came straight-ahead legends like Tommy Flanagan
, McCoy Tyner, Chet Baker, Freddie Hubbard
, Elvin Jones, Kenny Barron and many more.
Then came the time of early world music productions with Dollar Brand
(aka Abdullah Ibrahim), Rabih Abou-Khalil, Mahmoud Turkmani, Gypsy bands, Indonesia's Monica Akihary, Turkish sax virtuoso Taner Akyol and others. AAJ:
From Abou-Khalil to Attila Zoller
, ENJA has signed more than 250 artists. What is your approach to finding and building relationships with your artists? MW:
When I hear an artist on a CD or at a festival, or when he is recommended by other artists, I always try to hear him at a full concert or in a club. Only there can you really find out what he is about. I always looked for originality more than virtuosity. AAJ:
Could you tell us some stories about the way you met and recorded Waldron, Zoller, Khalil, Ibrahim, Bakeror any others that comes to mind? MW:
I met Waldron at a Sunday afternoon session in a club where black US Soldiers checked the out the local girls. I met Baker many times in Germany, but also at the Chat Qui Pêche in Paris, where I spent a lot of times during university holidays. As far as Zoller is concerned, it was at the Frankfurt jazz club during school holiday when he played a session after a JATP [Jazz at the Philharmonic] concert with Phineas Newborn, Jr.
, Zoot Sims
, Roy Eldridge
and J.J. Johnson
what a night! I had escaped from boarding school for that night and was very nearly kicked out of school.
Attila became a close friend later; I always roomed with him in New York and he stayed in my house when in Germany.